In all the B complex vitamins, men had a higher consumption than women, while there was no difference by sex in vitamin C. The B complex vitamins follow a decreasing progression with advancing age. In folates and vitamin C, no differences were found by age. The deficit in water-soluble vitamins was low. In folates, the majority presented inadequacy due to deficit (39.5%) or excess (31.8%), and, in vitamin C, excess prevailed (78.7%). In these vitamins, an association was only found between the adequacy of folates and sex. Most of the men had an excess (44.9%), and most women had a deficit (51.7%).
When compared with the eight countries, the level of inadequate intake of micronutrients is also high. For example, vitamin A presents an inadequacy level of 52%; vitamin D presents a high inadequacy in all countries; calcium presents a high variability; Argentina has the lowest percentage (70%) and the highest in Costa Rica and Peru, 95-97% respectively. Brazil has the most significant iron deficiency, significantly associated with socioeconomic status (25, 26).
Likewise, the vulnerability of the 50-65-year-old group that accumulates the most significant deficit in macro and micronutrients and presents the greatest socioeconomic and educational vulnerability, a condition that predisposes them to chronic diseases related to nutrition, is also striking.
Most of the respondents eat three or fewer meals a day on both visits. Lunch was the meal that predominated in the daily intake, followed in decreasing order by breakfast and dinner. A preservation effect of the substantial meal of the day is observed, while dinner is the most sacrificed meal. Therefore, about 20% of Venezuelans in 2015 went to bed without dinner and were hungry. These data coincide with other studies in the same period (20).
In this study, differences in diet are observed between social strata, with higher consumption in higher-level strata. In addition, the food situation of the urban population in the interior of the country, in areas such as Guayana, Oriente, and Los Llanos, is more compromised than in the Capital, even though, in the Andes and Central regions, the level of consumption is better, due to in part, because they are food-producing areas, in which prices are lower, and there is greater availability of fruits, tubers, legumes and vegetables.
Sugary drinks appeared as an essential source of simple carbohydrates; this is reinforced by the custom of the Venezuelan diner who accompanies meals with natural fruit juices or soft drinks once / day (27).
The EVANS 2015 study shows a significant reduction in the consumption of macro and micronutrients, more intense in the social strata and lower educational levels and older adults, similar to other studies in the same period. (twenty).
Also striking is the low consumption of energy and essential nutrients in the younger population groups and the greater vulnerability of women due to a complex profile of deficiencies in specific nutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. These results represent an alert to the growing deterioration in the Venezuelan diet, which compromises their nutritional and health status, generating an increase in diseases due to deficiencies of macro and micronutrients that affect the population’s well-being.
The results of the EVANS study provide information that allows knowing the levels of inadequate intakes of macro and micronutrients, determining vulnerable or risk groups, planning recovery programs or maintenance of nutritional status, and designing evidence-based public policies. This baseline will also allow comparing future food consumption and evaluating the efficiency of public policies designed for this purpose.
Grapefruit is one of the healthiest citrus fruits.
In addition to being a good source of vitamins and minerals, it is known for its ability to contribute to weight loss and reduce insulin resistance.
For example, in a study of 91 people, those who ate half a fresh grapefruit before meals lost 2.9 pounds (1.3 kg) more weight than those who did not.
In the same study, the group that ate grapefruit significantly reduced insulin levels and insulin resistance.
Additionally, eating grapefruit has been shown to lower cholesterol levels and help prevent kidney stones.
Grapefruit is highly nutritious. Consuming it can reduce insulin resistance and cholesterol and help prevent kidney stones. Grapefruit can also be helpful for weight loss.
Among tropical fruits, pineapple is a superstar of nutrition. One cup (237 ml) of pineapple provides 131 percent of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) for vitamin C and 76 percent of the RDI for manganese.
Pineapple also contains bromelain, a blend of enzymes known for its anti-inflammatory properties and ability to digest protein.
Laboratory and animal studies suggest that bromelain may help protect against cancer and tumour growth.
Pineapple is rich in vitamin C and manganese. Its bromelain content can fight inflammation and reduce the risk of cancer.
Avocado is different from most other fruits.
Most fruits are high in carbohydrates, while avocado is low in carbohydrates and mainly comprises healthy fats.
Most of the fat in avocado is oleic acid, a monounsaturated fat linked to reduced inflammation and heart health.
In addition to containing healthy fats, avocado is loaded with potassium, fibre, and magnesium.
A whole avocado provides 28 percent of the RDI for potassium. Adequate potassium intake is associated with a reduction in blood pressure and a lower risk of stroke.
Avocado is rich in healthy fats and potassium, known for its role in promoting heart health.
Blueberries have potent health benefits.
They have an impressive nutritional profile, exceptionally high in fibre, vitamin C, vitamin K, and manganese.
Blueberries are also exceptionally high in antioxidants.
They are believed to contain the highest antioxidant content among the most commonly consumed fruits.
The antioxidants in blueberries can reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s.
Blueberries are also known for their powerful effects on the immune system.
One study found that consuming blueberries regularly can increase natural killer cells in the body. This helps defend against oxidative stress and viral infections.
Additionally, the antioxidants in blueberries can have a protective effect on the brain. For example, consuming blueberries has been shown to improve memory in older adults.
Blueberries are rich in some essential nutrients. They have a high antioxidant capacity and immunological properties that can protect the body from diseases.