energy and nutrient
fruits and vegetables in female hands with medical equipment on blue background

energy and nutrient

The evaluation of food consumption is a major challenge, as it represents a measurement of the energy and nutrient intake of a population. In the modern world, food consumption is influenced by different factors such as access to food, its cost, nutritional knowledge, behavior towards food, household income and sociocultural factors that determine behavior. food (1).

This is a complex and time-consuming assessment and existing methods for measuring food consumption are not without errors. The most frequently used methodologies, such as the 24-hour reminder and the frequency of consumption questionnaires, provide valuable information that must be collected under the strictest quality standards to minimize errors in the tabulation of information (2 ).

In Venezuela, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes constitute the main causes of morbidity and mortality, in which overweight and obesity are found as modifiable risk factors, therefore, it is very important that interventions are oriented towards modify lifestyle, especially physical activity, eating habits and habitat (3,4).

The availability of information is essential to develop interventions in the field of health, however, in the country the information from the Food Consumption Monitoring Survey (5) and the National Nutrition Surveys (6) have a irregular periodicity and limited access that does not allow the use of them, as in previous times.

Therefore, it is very important to carry out studies of food consumption, anthropometric profile and physical activity, as basic elements of analysis that allow identifying critical points for the design of promotion and prevention strategies in public health, which affect the reduction of the country’s food and nutritional problems and associated risk factors.

In the country, studies have been carried out to measure the real consumption of food, such as the Nutrition Survey in 1963, which was part of a collaborative study between the National Institute of Nutrition (INN) and the Interdepartmental Committee for the National Defense of the States. States of America, in a sample of 3670 individuals. The method used was the combination of recording by weighing and the reminder of the previous day. In 1966, the Central University of Venezuela (UCV) and the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance carried out the Caracas Study where a methodology similar to that of 1963 was used.

Between 1981 and 1982, the INN carried out the National Nutrition Survey, in a sample of 1,661 families distributed in different socioeconomic strata, combining the 3-day weighing record and the consumption outside the home through a 2-day reminder.

From July 1981 to October 1987, the Survey of Food Consumption and Habits was developed at the national level, as part of the Venezuela Project, in a sample of 3,947 families made up of 28,788 individuals with urban and rural representation, by socioeconomic strata and used a combination of weighing and reminding for one day (9).

In 2008, Fundacredesa published consumption data from the proposed National Study of Human Growth and Development of the Venezuelan population, where food intake was evaluated through the combination of a food acquisition record and a one-day reminder .

Between 2008 and 2010, the INN carried out the Study of Overweight and Obesity in Venezuela. Prevalence and Conditioning Factors, of a descriptive-exploratory cross-sectional type and in a representative sample of 22,646 subjects of either sex between 7 and 40 years old. In this study, consumption was evaluated through a Frequency of Food Consumption, from which a pattern characterized by a high frequency in the consumption of calorie source foods from simple carbohydrates and fats was obtained .

In the second quarter of 2012 and the second and third quarter of 2013, the National Institute of Statistics (INE), within the framework of the Food Consumption Monitoring Survey (ESCA) developed the National Food Consumption Survey ( ENCA), which has among its objectives to determine the pattern of real food consumption in the home of the population of three (3) years and over, using as methods the reminder of the previous day and frequency of food consumption. According to this study, 96% of the sample ate more than three meals a day with an average energy consumption of 2,385 kcal and a caloric contribution of: protein 12.6%, fat 20.2% and carbohydrates 67.2%..


Apples are among the most popular fruits, and they are also incredibly nutritious.

They contain a large amount of fibre, vitamin C, potassium, and vitamin K. They also provide some B vitamins.

Studies suggest that the antioxidants in apples can promote heart health and reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer’s.

The antioxidant activity of apples has also been linked to higher bone density in laboratory and animal studies.

Another essential health benefit of apples is their pectin content.

Pectin is a prebiotic fibre that feeds the good bacteria in your gut and helps improve digestion and metabolic health.


Apples are very nutritious. Its nutrients, antioxidants, and fibre can reduce the risk of disease and improve digestion.

6. Grenades

Pomegranates are among the healthiest fruits you can eat.

Not only are they loaded with nutrients, but they also contain potent plant compounds that are responsible for most of their health benefits.

The antioxidant levels in pomegranates are three times higher than those in green tea and red wine.

Studies have also shown that pomegranates have anti-inflammatory effects and can help reduce the risk of cancer.


Pomegranates have a wide range of health benefits. They are fantastical elements high in antioxidants and other plant compounds that can help reduce inflammation and prevent disease.

7. Handle

Mangoes are an excellent source of vitamin C.

They also contain soluble fibre, which can provide many health benefits.

Additionally, mangoes have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce your risk of disease.

In animal studies, the plant compounds in mangoes have been shown to protect against diabetes.


Mangoes contain vitamin C and soluble fibre-like plant compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

8. Strawberries

Strawberries are highly nutritious.

They stand out for their content of vitamin C, manganese, folate and potassium.

Compared to other fruits, strawberries have a relatively low glycemic index. Eating them shouldn’t cause a spike in blood sugar.

Like other berries, strawberries have a high antioxidant capacity, reducing the risk of developing chronic diseases.

Animal and laboratory studies have shown that strawberries can also help prevent cancer and tumour formation.


Lingonberries have impressive health benefits.

They have an excellent nutritional profile and are rich in vitamin C, manganese, vitamin E, vitamin K1, and copper.

They also contain a significant amount of antioxidants called flavonol polyphenols, which can improve health.

What makes cranberries unique from other fruits is that their juices and extracts help prevent UTIs.

Type-A proanthocyanidins are believed to be the compounds responsible for this effect, as they can prevent bacteria from attaching to the lining of the bladder and urinary tract.


Lingonberries are rich in various nutrients and antioxidants. They also contain beneficial plant compounds that help prevent urinary infections.


Lemons are a very healthy citrus fruit known for their high vitamin C content.

They can be particularly helpful in promoting heart health due to their potential to lower blood lipids and blood pressure.

Based on findings from animal studies, researchers have also proposed that plant compounds in lemons may help prevent weight gain.

Other studies show that the citric acid in lemon juice can treat kidney stones.


Lemons are rich in vitamin C and other plant compounds that can promote heart health, boost weight loss, and help prevent kidney stones.

11. Durian

Durian is nicknamed the “king of fruits.”

One cup (237 ml) of durian provides 80 percent of the RDI for vitamin C.

It is also rich in manganese, B vitamins, copper, folate, and magnesium.

Additionally, durian contains several healthy plant compounds that function as antioxidants.


Durian is rich in nutrients and plant compounds that can provide some promising health benefits.